Panteleimon Ekkekakis -PhD, FACSM - Iowa State University (USA)
Exercise hedonics: Pleasure-displeasure responses to exercise and their implications for exercise behavior
Despite decades of promotion efforts, most adults in Western countries fail to do the minimum amount of physical activity recommended for health enhancement and maintenance. This situation, which has been described as one of the “catastrophic failures of public health,” challenges the theoretical models that have long been the bedrock of public-health social-marketing campaigns. The so-called “rational-educational model” is credited, at least in part, with successes in promoting a variety of health behaviors, including smoking cessation, oral hygiene, preventive health screenings, and safer sexual practices. It appears, however, that, despite widespread recognition of the benefits of exercise for health, this awareness has not resulted in a measurable behavior change at the population level. The presentation will highlight the need to transition from information-processing models to dual-process models that acknowledge the importance of non-rational influences on human decision making. In particular, the focus will be on the role of affective responses (pleasure-displeasure), their underlying cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms, and their emerging implications for exercise behavior.
Marc Leman - IPEM, Musicology - Ghent University (Belgium)
Musical entrainment of movements -- theory, research, and technological applications
The regular beat pattern in music is a strong motivator for human movement. Many people experience an empowering effect when their movements are synchronized with the musical beat. But what are the underlying mechanisms that generate this empowering effect? And what technologies do we have to generate the effect? In this keynote I suggest that a mechanism based on predictive processing and reward processing may be responsible for the empowering effect. Predictive processing handles the synchronization between human movement and the musical external stimulus by means of a phase-error correction mechanism that handles the match between what is expected and what is observed. Through the manipulation of the music’s phase and tempo, it becomes possible to influence human entrainment to the beat, offering a way to reveal its principles. Examples are given of the D-Jogger system and its integration into the BeatHealth system. This enables the manipulation of spontaneous entrainment, through phase and period manipulations. It is argued that agency (or the feeling of control over the beat) may play a key role in understanding the reward processing. Agency is here understood as a mechanism that turns co-occurrences into causes, and this mechanism may engage additional affective processing mechanisms related to power and satisfaction. It is argued that the empowering effect of being in sync with the beat is based on this link between prediction, agency and affect processing, and reward. My talk will be based on ideas presented in my new book, and illustrated with pictures, videos and a demonstration of the D-Jogger-BeatHealth system for walking and running. [M. Leman (2016). The expressive moment -- How interaction (with music) shapes human empowerment. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.] .
Costas Karageorghis - Brunel University London (England)
La Puissance du Son: Exploring Affective, Cognitive and Behavioural Responses to Music in Physical Activity
From the very dawn of human civilization, ancient cultures sought to combine sounds in such a way that they had a powerful influence on the human psyche. Through the ages, music has become intertwined with a diverse range of human activities that include worship of a deity, preparing soldiers to enter the fray, the coordination of manual labour, and enhancing the experience of physical activity. This address will explore the structured use of music to optimise the mindset and outcomes for those involved in exercise and sport. The first part will deal with key concepts, underlying mechanisms (see also Karageorghis, Ekkekakis, Bird, & Bigliassi, in press), theoretical advancements, and recent empirical research that concerns affective, cognitive, and behavioural responses to music. A focal point will be the presentation of a theoretical model (Karageorghis, 2016, 2017) that seeks to expound the antecedents, moderators, and consequences of music use in the realm of exercise and sport. The model, which is heuristic in nature, provides guidance for practitioners and researchers. In the second part of the address, a series of applied examples that cover a broad range of music applications will be used to illustrate theoretical principles.
Beatrice de Gelder - Maastricht University (The Netherlands)
The body, its actions and its expressions untangled.
Abstract coming soon